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  Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is one of the most advanced deposition techniques in semiconductor or display fields. Owing to the self-limiting reaction of ALD, unusual properties such as large-area uniformity, excellent conformality, and sub-nanometer thickness controllability can be identified.

Organic materials in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are corroded by moistures in air. Thus, a protection layer, referred to as encapsulation, to prevent moisture penetration is necessary. ALD-based encapsulation ensures low defect densities, thereby producing a long-lasting OLED display.

Nanomaterials are more fascinating than Si materials for future electronic materials because they can overcome the previously mentioned limitations. Not only zero-dimensional or one-dimensional structure but also 2D materials have been the focus owing to their distinct properties. Therefore, fabricating and utilizing them is remarkably important.

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